Function and application of food grade soybean lecithin



1. Introduction

Phospholipids are a class of phospholipids present in animals and plants. Phospholipid research began in Germany in 1920, and industrialized production was realized in developed countries after the 1960s. my country's research on phospholipids began in the 1950s. At present, there are more than a dozen production plants such as Shanghai No. 1 Oil and Oil Factory, but the technical level still lags behind the foreign advanced level. And the application research of phospholipids also needs to be strengthened, so as to facilitate the wide application of such products.

Phospholipids are monolipid derivatives containing phosphate radicals. According to their molecular structure, they can be divided into two categories: glycerol phospholipids and sphingolipids. The important component of phospholipids is that a fatty acid radical in triglyceride is replaced by phosphoric acid. Lecithin, and cephalin further lipidated by choline or cholineamine. Soybean lecithin  is mainly developed for its good quality, large quantity, low processing cost and wide application. At present, the annual output of lecithin in the world reaches 150,000 tons, and soybean lecithin products account for 90%. Only a few products are extracted from egg yolk, mainly used in medicine and cosmetics. Production.

2. The composition of soybean phospholipids, soybean phospholipids can be divided into two categories: glycerol phospholipids and sphingolipids.

Glycerol phospholipid: The alcohol that constitutes glycerol phospholipid is glycerol, and its two hydroxyl groups are replaced by fatty acids; the other is generated by the replacement of phosphoric acid and nitrogen-containing base compounds, wherein R1 and R2 represent C16-C22 saturated or The carbon chain of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acids mainly include palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. When different groups are substituted, different types of phospholipids are formed. When the n-olamine group is substituted with -CH2CH2NH2, it is phosphorylethanolamine, also known as cephalin (PE); when the choline group is substituted with -CH2CH2N (CH3)3, it is a phospholipid Acylcholine, also known as lecithin (PC); when substituted by inositol group C6H(OH)5, it is phosphatidylinositol, also known as inositol phospholipid (PI); when substituted by serine group -CH2CH(NH2)COOH , for phosphatidylserine (PS), in addition to phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol, condensed phospholipids, lysocholine phospholipids (LPC), lysoethanolamine phospholipids (LPE) and so on.

Sphingolipids: Sphingolipids are sphingolipids, which belong to complex phospholipids, mainly including sphingomyelin, acyl sphingosine, cerebrolysin and ganglioside. Its composition contains three basic structural components: a molecule of fatty acid, a molecule of sphingosine or its derivatives, and a charged polar head. Sphingomyelin (SPM), the typical representative of sphingomyelin, is the most abundant sphingolipid in animal tissues. Its polar head is phospholipid ethanolamine or phosphorylcholine. connected and constituted.<

3. Functionality of soybean lecithin

Phospholipids are an important part of living cells and all living cells, and are also the main components of nerve tissue, especially the cerebrospinal cord. 40% of the dry matter in the human brain and bone marrow is composed of phospholipids, which are also the main constituent materials of blood cells and other cell membranes. In normal blood, phospholipids account for 25% of the total lipids, which play an important role in the normal activities and metabolism of the human body. important role.

Soy lecithin is added to various foods as an additive or fortifier, and it is generally alkaline and can neutralize the pH value in the blood. In addition to comprehensive amino acids, it is also rich in niacin and folic acid, and the physiological activity of essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid is as high as 65.9%.

The health-care effects of soybean phospholipids are as follows: First, regulating blood lipids, phospholipids play a nutritional emulsification role in plasma, and the high-density lipoproteins contained in them can remove excess cholesterol and triglycerides. The second is to improve memory. The choline released after the phospholipids in the food are digested and absorbed will be transported to the brain with the blood to combine with ester acids to form acetylcholine. When the content of ether choline in the brain increases, the information between the nerve cells in the brain The transfer speed is accelerated and the memory function is enhanced. The third is to delay aging. The fundamental sign of human aging is the aging of the cell membrane. The cell membrane is composed of phospholipids, cholesterol and proteins. It is responsible for supplying the necessary substances to maintain life and eliminating metabolites in the metabolic process. In addition to supplying nutrients, the transport of phospholipids can also repair damaged cell membranes and the structure of lipoproteins and enzymes, adjust the ratio of phospholipids and cholesterol in cells, increase the unsaturation of fatty acids in membranes, improve membrane properties and anti-aging, Make people maintain a moderate body and strong energy. Fourth, sphingolipids can participate in the growth of neurons, maintain the excitability of the nervous system, maintain the permeability of epidermal cells, enhance the skin barrier function, participate in the regulation of cell metabolism, and stimulate cell proliferation. In the U.S. nutraceutical market, sales of protein and soy lecithin have risen to third place. The World Health Organization reports that consuming 22-83g of soybean lecithin per person per day can increase the sum of nutritional potency and reduce blood cholesterol without any side effects, confirming the nutritional and safety of soybean lecithin.

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