Marigold is a 1-year-old herb of the genus Asteraceae, also known as stinky hibiscus, wormwood, and longevity lamp. It is harvested in summer and autumn. Its stems are stout and erect, the leaf margins have glands, release odor, and the flower heads are solitary. , yellow to orange. Marigolds are native to Mexico, with fewer pests and diseases and stronger survivability. Marigold flowers can be used as the main plant-based source for extracting lutein, and the human body can obtain lutein through food intake, which has the effect of preventing age-related macular degeneration. Lutein can also prevent a variety of chronic diseases, and has the functions of anti-cancer, anti-cardiovascular disease and improving immunity.
1. Antioxidant activity
The flowers of marigold are the main raw materials for lutein extraction. Lutein, as a class of tetraterpenoids, is rich in conjugated double bonds and has a strong ability to scavenge free radicals, which can effectively prevent oxygen free radicals from affecting cells. destroy. Some scholars have studied and analyzed the scavenging effect of marigold lutein on peroxides, superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals and lipid radicals by chemiluminescence, and found that lutein has a strong scavenging effect on the above-mentioned free radicals. . The synergistic antioxidant activity of two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, was studied by comprehensively using two methods based on in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antioxidant damage model based on ethanol oxidative damage in mice. The synergistic antioxidant effect was better when the ratio of xanthin was 1:2. In studying the relationship between lutein and brain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation, mitochondrial lutein was found to be inversely correlated with docosatetraenoic acid (DHA) oxidation products, and subcellular lobes The accumulation of flavin and its relationship with DHA oxidation in primate brain suggest that lutein may be involved in the antioxidant function in the brain.
In recent years, domestic and foreign studies have found that lutein in marigold has the effect of inhibiting colon cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer and other tumor cells. Relevant studies have shown that the anti-tumor effect of lutein is mainly achieved through its inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of differentiation, induction of tumor cell apoptosis, immune regulation, and antioxidant activity. Studies have shown that lutein can inhibit the proliferation of esophageal cancer EC9706 cells to a certain extent and induce the apoptosis of EC9706 cells. The effect of lutein on inhibiting the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and related molecular mechanisms were studied and analyzed, and it was found that lutein could affect the transcriptional expression of AP-1, p53, caspase-3 genes and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, thereby inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2. proliferation of cells. In addition, two flavonoids extracted and isolated from the stems and leaves of marigold can inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells SGC7901 and human liver cancer cells SMMC7721, and confirmed their anti-cancer and anti-cancer activities in vitro.
3. Inhibit cardiovascular disease
The accumulation of cholesterol and LDL (lipoprotein) in the human body is an important cause of atherosclerosis and thus cardiovascular disease. Relevant epidemiological, in vitro experiments and animal model studies have shown that marigold lutein can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases to a certain extent by preventing the occurrence of atherosclerosis. The study found that lutein can inhibit Aβ25-35-induced toxicity by regulating the expression of Nrf-2 and NF-κB in cerebral vascular endothelial cells (bEND.3 cells), and improve mitochondrial membrane potential and cell activity. Through mouse animal experiments, it was found that lutein can improve atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis in apoE-/- mice caused by high-fat feeding by regulating lipid metabolism and improving oxidative stress. Studies have found that lutein extracted from marigold can achieve anti-atherosclerosis effects by regulating blood lipid metabolism, increasing plasma NO and cGMP levels, and reducing ET production.
In addition, the lutein in marigold can not only have a protective effect on visual diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and cataract, but also found that marigold extract can relieve visual fatigue, and relieve eye swelling, eye pain, photophobia, and visual acuity. It can improve the symptoms of visual fatigue such as blurring and dry eyes. Marigold hydroalcoholic extract helps reduce diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and therapeutic amounts of marigold extract also help improve weight.
Study on deep processing and utilization of marigold lutein products
Marigold is one of the main raw materials for industrial extraction and preparation of lutein. In addition to the traditional solvent extraction method, the existing extraction technology has been gradually applied to marigold leaf yellow with the continuous development of plant extraction technology in recent years. The research and practical application of the extraction preparation.
Although marigold lutein has high physiological activity, because lutein is a fat-soluble substance, and there are a large number of conjugated double bonds in its molecular structure, it is easily oxidized and decomposed under the conditions of light, heat and oxygen, and its stability and poor water solubility, thus limiting its deep processing and utilization. In recent years, researchers at home and abroad have carried out research and development of lutein microcapsules and lutein soft capsules using lutein as raw material. Microencapsulation technology uses gelatin, gum arabic and other substances (wall materials) to encapsulate lipid-soluble active substances such as lutein into tiny particles (microcapsules) to achieve the purpose of improving the stability and biological activity of the encapsulated substances. Some scholars selected gum arabic as the wall material, and obtained the optimal formula and process for preparing lutein microcapsules through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment optimization. The product stability of lutein microcapsules was significantly improved and the water solubility was good. Some studies have used gelatin as the wall material to prepare lutein enteric-coated microcapsules by single coacervation method, and optimized the preparation process of lutein enteric-coated microcapsules by response surface test. Enteric properties.
Soft capsules are a new type of dosage form that is widely used in the field of health food. They have beautiful appearance, high bioavailability and good stability, and can effectively prevent the target from decomposing light and heat-sensitive components. Some scholars choose medicinal soybean oil as the dispersion medium, add beeswax and soybean lecithin as suspending agents and wetting agents, and optimize the optimal preparation formula of lutein soft capsules through orthogonal experiments. The results show that the prepared lutein The content of the soft capsule is uniform and has good stability. Some studies have used lutein monomer, vitamin A, vitamin E, etc. as raw materials, and prepared lutein soft capsules with the function of relieving visual fatigue through compound research and development.
Lutein is the main biologically active substance contained in marigold, which is also contained in vegetables and fruits such as cabbage, corn, kiwi, spinach, etc. However, marigold is suitable for large-scale planting due to its high lutein content, low cost and other advantages. It has become the main source of industrialized preparation of lutein. Lutein is a type of carotenoid, and relevant studies have shown that it has a clear effect on preventing eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. In 1995, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed the availability and safety of lutein and approved it as a food supplement. In 2008, my country listed marigold lutein in the new resource food catalogue. Currently, marigold lutein is widely used in the production of health food and dietary supplements as a health food raw material.
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