In the process of meat product processing, the difference between different meat products, in addition to the raw materials used, the operation method, and the product form, the different ratio of additives is a very important factor. Additives mainly stabilize, marinate, soften, season, provide fragrance, increase flavor, maintain or increase color, increase nutrition, improve product quality and product yield, and increase the economic benefits of enterprises. Due to the different use of additives, similar products will also have great disparity in quality. Therefore, in the production of meat products, a good grasp of the performance and application of additives can play the following roles:
prolong the shelf life of products and prevent product spoilage - China has not yet clearly stipulated the preservatives that are allowed to be used in meat products. However, sorbic acid and lactic acid bacteria are widely used in meat processing. Studies have shown that sorbate can prolong the storage period of various products, fresh poultry and poultry products, and inhibit the growth of various pathogens including botulism. Adding sorbate and reducing the amount of nitrite in cured bacon products can reduce the potential danger of forming or carcinogenic nitrosamines and have the effect of inhibiting botulinum toxin. Nisin can inhibit Gram-positive bacteria, sodium lactate can inhibit Gram-negative bacteria, and citric acid can work against these two kinds of bacteria. EDTA cooperates with Nisin to inhibit Gram-positive bacteria and is used in combination through their synergistic effect. After effect is better. The latest research shows that the compound application of protamine, glycine, phosphate, calcium gluconate and other raw materials can effectively inhibit and kill various microorganisms that cause food spoilage, and can protect color, hold water, resist oxidation, and enhance taste and flavor It is suitable for low-temperature meat products, ham sausage, canned meat, etc.
Improve product texture - adding quality improvers can make the finished product have good taste, compact structure, smooth slices and high elasticity. Additives with this function include starch, coagulating protein, carrageenan, xanthan gum, guar gum, konjac powder, phosphate, etc. Starch can improve the binding and water holding capacity of the product and is usually added at the end of mixing. Adding heat-coagulated protein or vegetable protein can play a role of water-wrapping, oil-wrapping, and emulsification in the product, and the addition amount is 1% to 5%; carrageenan has high transparency, strong water absorption, and is easy to dissolve. Additives, the amount added is generally less than 1%. According to the test, the combination of 35% k-carrageenan, 40% xanthan gum, 15% konjac gum, and 10% guar gum has an excellent effect. Phosphate is a water-retaining agent, and its addition amount is generally in the range of 0.2% to 0.5%. Phosphate has three different forms: trimer, hexameta, and sodium pyrophosphate. It is most effective to use these three types of scientific deployment and compounding. . It can improve the product texture of meat products, make them taste fresh and tender, optimize the flavor of finished products, and increase the export rate of products. For some meat products, adding an appropriate amount of papain before eating can achieve a fresh, refreshing, delicious and pleasant effect.
Improve product color—food additives that affect the color of meat products can be divided into three categories according to their color development mechanism. Commonly used coloring agents are sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, nicotinamide, etc. Nitrite is the most widely used in meat products. Generally, 100-150 mg/kg should be added if the meat content is above 60%, and 60-80 mg/kg should be added if the meat content is 20%-60%. It is 150%-200mg/kg. Since the meat products are made into stuffing through high-speed rotation, some coloring aids need to be added. The commonly used one is sodium D-iso-Vc to prevent myoglobin oxidation. The pigment is used to directly dye food through its own color, and the amount added depends on the situation. High-temperature ham sausages widely use monascus red pigment; low-temperature meat products Western-style enemas use more monascus red pigment, and a little carmine.
Give the product fragrance - people not only require high nutritional value, convenience and hygiene for meat products, but also attractive aroma and good flavor, so as to attract consumers. In the processing of meat products, sometimes the raw materials used have no obvious aroma, and no obvious aroma is produced during the processing, and only meat spices can be used to increase the aroma of food. At present, there are many types of meat flavors, which can be divided into liquid (also divided into two types of water quality and oil quality), paste and powder in terms of form. There are pigs, cattle, chickens, dogs, sheep, seafood and other types in terms of varieties, and there are many types of meat flavors for each variety. In addition, there are some special flavor enhancers, such as yeast extract and smoker. The smoke agent is made of natural plants as raw materials through dry distillation and purification. It has a certain effect of flavoring and antisepsis. It is mainly used to make various smoked meat products and fish products.
Utilizing smoked flavoring liquid to smoke food is a method widely used in the smoked food industry in the world at present, and it is regarded as the most promising spice in the smoked industry. The smoked liquid does not contain 3,4-benzopyrene carcinogens, and the smoked food is safe and reliable; it can greatly reduce labor, workshops, and equipment, and can realize industrial flow operations. At present, smoked flavoring liquid is being widely used in meat processing Promote apps.
When using the fragrance agent, it should be added at the last stage of the ingredients, and the temperature environment should be paid attention to. When adding the fragrance agent, it should not be added too much at one time, and it is better to add it slowly.
Improve the nutritional value of the product - add a certain amount of inorganic salts to strengthen the mineral content of meat products, such as active Ca, bone meal, Fe, Zn and other compounds.
Improving the flavor of meat food - in recent years, nucleotides have been widely used in meat processing, and the effect on improving the umami taste is extremely obvious. Spices have always been a necessary auxiliary material for meat products, which have a great influence on the flavor of meat products, and play the role of seasoning, flavoring and covering up bad flavors.
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