Sorbic acid and potassium sorbate (hereinafter referred to as sorbic acid and potassium salt) are good food preservatives, which are widely used in western developed countries, but not widely used in my country. Hu Wuhua, manager of the Internal Trade Department of Jiangsu Nantong Acetic Acid Chemical Co., Ltd., believes that as a food additive that is recognized as safe and highly effective in antisepsis, sorbic acid and potassium salt will be more and more widely used in my country's food industry.
Sorbic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid, the English name is Sorbicacid, also known as 2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-propenyl acrylic acid. Like other natural fatty acids, sorbic acid participates in the metabolic process in the human body, and is digested and absorbed by the human body to produce carbon dioxide and water. In terms of safety, sorbic acid is an internationally recognized safe (GRAS) preservative with high safety. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and the FDA have all affirmed its safety. The toxic and side effects of sorbic acid are lower than those of benzoic acid, vitamin C and table salt, and the toxicity is only 1/4 of that of benzoic acid and half of that of table salt. Sorbic acid has no carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on the human body.
Because the solubility of sorbic acid in water is not very high, it affects its application in food. Therefore, food additive manufacturers usually make sorbic acid into potassium sorbate with good solubility, so as to expand the application range of sorbic acid products. The antiseptic principle and antiseptic effect of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are the same. my country has included sorbic acid and potassium sorbate in GB2760 "Hygienic Standards for the Use of Food Additives". As a safe and efficient preservative, potassium sorbate instead of sodium benzoate is a trend in the development of the food industry. During the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period, the State Science and Technology Commission once organized a sorbic acid synthesis technology research project, which passed the appraisal at the end of 1986 in Jiangsu Nantong Acetic Acid Chemical Plant. Afterwards, Nantong Acetic Acid Chemical Co., Ltd. adopted foreign advanced technology and independently innovated products, obtained national patents, and built a key technical transformation project of the Ministry of Chemical Industry—the technological transformation project with an annual output of 10,000 tons of sorbic acid. The product quality reached the US FCCIV quality standard .
Main features of sorbic acid and potassium salt 1. Anti-mildew effect is good. The anti-mold ability of sorbic acid and potassium salt is significantly higher than that of benzoic acid and salts, and the anti-mold effect of potassium sorbate is 5-10 times that of sodium benzoate. The dosage of sorbic acid is generally between 0.2-1.0 g/kg.
2. The product has low toxicity and high safety. The side effects of sorbate are only 1/4 of that of benzoate and 1/2 of that of table salt. The safe range of use of sorbic acid and potassium salt in the human body is: the amount of use per kilogram of body weight per day should not exceed 25 mg.
3. Does not change food properties. Sorbic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid. After entering the human body, it participates in the metabolic process of the human body, and the metabolites are carbon dioxide and water. Therefore, sorbic acid can be regarded as a part of food, and its application in food will not destroy the color, aroma, taste and nutritional content of food.
4. Wide range of applications. Sorbic acid and potassium salt can be used in the preservation of beverages, wine, condiments, meat products, aquatic products, pickles and other foods, and it is also effective in fruit preservation.
5. Easy to use. When using sorbic acid and potassium salt, it can be added directly, sprayed or dipped. It is precisely because of its flexible use that the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, China, and Southeast Asian countries all recommend sorbic acid and potassium salts as preservatives for various foods.
Quality index of sorbic acid and potassium salt 1. Quality index of sorbic acid: It should meet the technical requirements of GB1905-2000. Products exported to developed countries in Europe and the United States should also meet relevant standards such as FCCIV.
1. Color and appearance: white crystalline powder.
2. Melting point: 132-135°C.
3. Content (on a dry basis): 99.0%-101.0%.
4. Residue on ignition: ≤0.2%.
5. Heavy metal (calculated as Pb): ≤0.001%.
6. Arsenic is calculated as As: ≤0.0002%.
7. Moisture: ≤0.5%.
8. Storage: Store in a cool and dry place, away from light, and it is forbidden to store together with toxic and harmful items
2. The quality index of potassium sorbate: it should meet the technical requirements of GB13736-92. Products exported
to developed countries in Europe and the United States should also meet relevant standards such as FCCIV.
1. Color and Appearance: White or light yellow crystalline powder, there are also scaly
or granular products.
2. Content: 98% - 102%.
3. Clarity: qualified.
4. Free base (calculated as potassium carbonate): qualified.
5. Loss on drying: ≤1%.
6. Compounds (as CL): ≤0.018%.
7. Sulfate (as SO4) ≤0.038%.
8. Aldehyde (as HCHO): ≤0.1%.
9. Heavy metal (calculated as Pb): ≤0.001%.
10. Arsenic (calculated as As): ≤0.0003%.
11. Storage: Store in a cool and dry place, away from light, and it is forbidden to store together with toxic and harmful items
Application examples of sorbic acid and potassium salt in food
According to engineer Hu Wuhua, sorbic acid and potassium salt are used in a variety of foods,
both of which can play a role in antisepsis and preservation, and have good safety performance.
1. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in wine and beverages. (1) Add 200-300 mg of potassium sorbate and 20-40 mg of sulfur dioxide per liter of alcoholic food. (2) Soda drinks: Add sorbic acid at a ratio of 0.03%-0.04%. (3) Beverages such as fresh orange juice and hawthorn juice: adding sorbic acid at a ratio of 0.02% can extend the shelf life to 6 months. (4) Other non-alcoholic beverages: add sorbic acid at a ratio of 0.04%-0.05%.
2. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in soy sauce, sauce products and pickled vegetables. (1) Soy sauce: add sorbic acid at a ratio of 0.01%, and store it for 70 days in the high temperature season, so that the soy sauce will
not have the problem of mold growth and deterioration. (2) Sauce products: Because this kind of food is relatively viscous, sorbic acid is not easy to disperse evenly in it. Users can heat the
In the case, add the corresponding concentration of sorbic acid solution. (3) Soy sauce pickles: sorbic acid can be dissolved in glacial acetic acid, and then added to pickles, the amount added is within 1.0 g/kg, and the pH value is controlled between 4.0-4.5 between. (4) Distiller's lees pickles: You can first dissolve sorbic acid in ethanol, shochu or cooking wine, and then add it to pickles, the addition amount is 0.75-1 g/kg. (5) Vinegar pickled vegetables: Add sorbic acid directly to the material at an amount of 0.5 g/kg. (6) Pickled gherkins, beetroots and other pickled vegetables: You can add an appropriate amount of potassium sorbate (according to 0.1% of the salt) to the vinegar containing salt. In order to prevent the turbidity of pickle brine, you can first dissolve salt, spices and potassium sorbate in water, and then add vinegar. (7) Kimchi: The dosage of potassium sorbate is 0.05%-0.07%. First mix potassium sorbate and salt evenly, and then put it into pickles.
3. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in aquatic products. (1) Fish cake food: The pH value of fish cake products is between 6.8 and 7.2. If you lower the pH, it will affect the elasticity of kamaboko. And sorbic acid is an acid preservative, so the dosage of sorbic acid should not exceed 1.0 g/kg. To solve the problem of conflicting pH and elasticity of kamaboko, a mixture of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate can be used, or potassium sorbate can be used alone. (2) Fish sausage: add a mixture of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate to the fish sausage according to the dosage of 0.1%-0.2%, and store it at 30°C for two weeks, the sausage will not deteriorate; The control sample deteriorated after a week. When the pH value of the fish sausage is adjusted to less than 6, at a temperature of 10-15°C, the fish sausage can be preserved for 7 weeks without deterioration. (3) Dried fish products: This type of food is very dry, and dried fish products with a moisture content of less than 30% generally do not suffer from bacterial corruption, but mildew may occur. Adding sorbic acid can effectively prevent mildew in dried fish products, and the dosage of sorbic acid is 1.0 g/kg. (4) Smoked fish products: Spray potassium sorbate solution with a concentration of 5%-10% on the smoked fish products. The spraying process can be carried out before, during or after smoking. (5) Fish and shrimp cooked in soy sauce: this type of food with sorbic acid added at a dosage of 0.1% can be stored for two months without deterioration at a temperature of 10-15°C. (6) Fresh fish, fresh shrimp and other aquatic products: After washing fresh fish and other aquatic products, immerse them in a fresh-keeping solution containing sorbic acid for 20 seconds, then drain the solution, and refrigerate the fish. The formula of the fresh-keeping solution is: 1.0%-5.0% of sorbic acid, 1.0%-20% of glycerin, 0.3%-3.0% of polyvinyl alcohol, and the rest is water.
4. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in meat products and sausages. (1) Dried meat, dried sausage, smoked ham and other similar dried meat products can be soaked in a solution of potassium sorbate with a concentration of 5%-15% for 30 seconds. (2) Beef sausage, pork sausage, pork and beef mixed sausage: you can add sorbic acid in the amount of 0.05%-0.08% in the meat chopping process, and spray 5% sorbic acid on the surface of the sausage after making the sausage Potassium sorbate solution. (3) General meat material: first add sorbic acid or potassium sorbate to the meat material according to the dosage of 0.05%-0.1%, and then add C10 or C12 fatty acid according to the dosage of 0.01%-0.5% Glycerides. In addition, potassium nitrite (20ppm-30ppm) and sodium hexametaphosphate are added to the meat. (4) Meat stuffing: Add sorbic acid in an amount of 0.08%-0.1%, or use a mixture of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate. (5) Cooked chicken: Soak cooked chicken in potassium sorbate fresh-keeping solution for 30 seconds, and then store it at 4°C to keep it fresh for 20 days. The formula of the potassium sorbate fresh-keeping solution is: 10% citric acid, 6% potassium sorbate, 34% modified corn starch, 50% water, and the pH value of the fresh-keeping solution is 3.2. (6) Fresh poultry meat: Spray the preservative solution containing sorbic acid on the surface of fresh poultry meat and store it at 7°C. After 18 days, the product did not deteriorate; while the control sample deteriorated after 5 days . The formula of the preservation solution is: 70 parts of propylene glycol containing 7.5% sorbic acid, 20 parts of water and 10 parts of glycerin. (7) Fresh chicken legs and chicken breasts: Soak chicken legs and chicken breasts in 10% sorbic acid solution for 30 seconds. At 4°C, they can be stored for 20 days, and the preservation time is twice that of the control sample.
5. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in vegetable and fruit preservation. (1) Vegetables and fruits: Put vegetables and fruits together with sorbic acid preservative into polyethylene bags, seal them, and store them at 30°C for more than one month to keep the greenness of vegetables and fruits unchanged. The formula of the sorbic acid preservative is: 80 parts of calcium peroxide, 3 parts of sorbic acid, 70 parts of zeolite, and the weight ratio of the preservative to the fruit is 1:20. (2) Apples: Spray 0.05% preservative solution on the surface of apples and store them at room temperature for 4 months, only 3.2%-6.0% of the apples will deteriorate. The formula of the liquid preservation is: 1 part of sorbic acid, 4 parts of talcum powder, and 95 parts of water. (3) Canned vegetables: adding sorbic acid at a ratio of 0.1% can prevent tinplate from rusting. (4) Tomato sauce: After opening the bottle cap, sorbic acid can be added at a ratio of 0.025%. Sorbic acid is first dissolved in acetic acid and then added to the tomato sauce. (5) Dried fruit: Soak or spray dried fruit with potassium sorbate solution with a concentration of 2%-5%. (6) Cooked soy food: control the amount of sorbic acid added to less than one-thousandth. Pay attention to adjusting the pH value of the material. When the pH value is above 7.0, it is necessary to add a small amount of edible acid (mostly citric acid) to the material to control the p value between 6.3-6.5. (7) Marmalade: When the sugar content of the material is 56°, sorbic acid can be added (0.25 g/kg). When cooking marmalade, because the pH value is low, sorbic acid is easy to volatilize, thereby reducing the actual content of sorbic acid. Therefore, after cooking, sorbic acid should be added to marmalade. (8) Jam and pectin: sorbic acid (0.05%) or potassium sorbate of corresponding concentration can be added. In addition, it is also possible to spray a 2% potassium sorbate solution on the surface of the material. (9) Concentrated fruit juice: Add potassium sorbate and an appropriate amount of sulfur dioxide. The dosage of potassium sorbate is 0.1%-0.2%. Dissolve potassium sorbate in a small amount of water first, then pour it into fruit juice and mix well.
6. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in pastry preservation. Sorbic acid can be directly added to flour or dough, and the dosage is generally 0.1%-0.15% (based on the weight of flour). When using potassium sorbate, potassium sorbate should be dissolved in water or milk first, and then added to flour or dough. The dosage of potassium sorbate is 0.13%-0.2% (based on flour weight scale).
When using sorbic acid and potassium salt in starch products, it is best to acidify the material with a small amount of vinegar in advance, so that the effect will be better.
7. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in preservation of candied fruit and candy. For almond candy, walnut candy, peanut candy or general sandwich candy, sorbic acid can be added according to the dosage of 0.08%-0.15%. For some candies with high sugar content, the amount of sorbic acid should be increased.
8. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in cheese preservation. (1) Hard cheese: Spray the material with a potassium sorbate solution with a concentration of 20%-40%, or soak the material in the potassium sorbate solution. (2) Cheese powder: Powdered sorbic acid or calcium sorbate can be added directly. (3) Salt salinated cheese: There are three ways to use potassium sorbate, one is to add potassium sorbate to the salt solution, the dosage is 0.2%-1.0%, and then use this salt solution to make cheese The second is to soak or spray the cheese with a concentration of 10% potassium sorbate solution before the finished cheese is sold. The third is to soak or spray the cheese with a sorbic acid solution containing a certain amount of alcohol. (4) Fresh cheese: mix sorbic acid powder (0.05%-0.1%) directly with cheese; or make a solution of potassium sorbate, then add it to cheese, the dosage of potassium sorbate is 0 .07%—0.13%. (5) Emulsified cheese: Add sorbic acid during the melting process of the emulsifying agent, the dosage is 0.06%-0.1%. (6) Pre-packaged cheese: The aging process of some cheese is carried out in a packaging bag made of polyester vinyl coating, and a certain amount of sorbic acid, potassium sorbate or calcium sorbate can be added to the cheese.
9. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in margarine preservation. (1) Potassium sorbate can be added to the emulsion-like margarine at a dosage of 0.06%-0.12%. (2) Add sorbic acid (0.03%-0.06%) and potassium sorbate (0.03%) to the milk cream mixed with emulsion and fat.
10. Application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in mayonnaise and salad preservation. (1) Sorbic acid (0.08%-0.1%) and potassium sorbate (0.1%) can be added to mayonnaise. (2) Adding a mixture of sorbic acid (0.1% in dosage) and sodium benzoate (0.06% in dosage) to the salad can prevent sour taste and bubbles, which are mostly caused by lactic acid fermentation of.
11. The application of sorbic acid and potassium salt in the preservation of other products. (1) Health product syrup: add sorbic acid at a ratio of 0.05%, which can prevent the syrup from becoming moldy. (2) Animal feed: A kind of antifungal agent for mixed feed is invented abroad, and it is mixed into the feed. The feed will not be moldy if it is stored for more than 90 days in any season. The formula of this antifungal agent is: 100 parts of sodium acetate, 200 parts of acetic acid, and 3 parts of sorbic acid. The addition amount of the antifungal agent is 1% of the total amount of feed.
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